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الموضوع: دوائر كهربائيه مختلفه, بحوث دوائر كهربائيه بلغة الانكليزيه< السابق | التالي >
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التصنيف : عضو شورى
الردود : 624
التسجيل: فبراير 2006
PostIcon تاريخ الرد : 13/3/2006 الساعة 02:48  انتقل إلى المشاركة اللاحقة في هذا الموضوع.   QUOTE

12 Volt 30 Amp PSU
Using a single 7812 IC voltage regulator and multiple outboard pass transistors, this power supply can deliver output load currents of up to 30 amps. The design is shown below:


Notes:
The input transformer is likely to be the most expensive part of the entire project. As an alternative, a couple of 12 Volt car batteries could be used. The input voltage to the regulator must be at least several volts higher than the output voltage (12V) so that the regulator can maintain its output. If a transformer is used, then the rectifier diodes must be capable of passing a very high peak forward current, typically 100amps or more. The 7812 IC will only pass 1 amp or less of the output current, the remainder being supplied by the outboard pass transistors. As the circuit is designed to handle loads of up to 30 amps, then six TIP2955 are wired in parallel to meet this demand. The dissipation in each power transistor is one sixth of the total load, but adequate heat sinking is still required. Maximum load current will generate maximum dissipation, so a very large heat sink is required. In considering a heat sink, it may be a good idea to look for either a fan or water cooled heat sink. In the event that the power transistors should fail, then the regulator would have to supply full load current and would fail with catastrophic results. A 1 amp fuse in the regulators output prevents a safeguard. The 400mohm load is for test purposes only and should not be included in the final circuit. A simulated performance is shown below:



Calculations:
This circuit is a fine example of Kirchoff's current and voltage laws. To summarise, the sum of the currents entering a junction, must equal the current leaving the junction, and the voltages around a loop must equal zero. For example, in the diagram above, the input voltage is 24 volts. 4 volts is dropped across R7 and 20 volts across the regulator input, 24 -4 -20 =0. At the output :- the total load current is 30 amps, the regulator supplies 0.866 A and the 6 transistors 4.855 Amp each , 30 = 6 * 4.855 + 0.866. Each power transistor contributes around 4.86 A to the load. The base current is about 138 mA per transistor. A DC current gain of 35 at a collector current of 6 amp is required. This is well within the limits of the TIP2955. Resistors R1 to R6 are included for stability and prevent current swamping as the manufacturing tolerances of dc current gain will be different for each transistor. Resistor R7 is 100 ohms and develops 4 Volts with maximun load. Power dissipation is hence (4^2)/200 or about 160 mW. I recommend using a 0.5 Watt resistor for R7. The input current to the regulator is fed via the emitter resistor and base emitter junctions of the power transistors. Once again using Kirchoff's current laws, the 871 mA regulator input current is derived from the base chain and the 40.3 mA flowing through the 100 Ohm resistor. 871.18 = 40.3 + 830. 88. The current from the regulator itself cannot be greater than the input current. As can be seen the regulator only draws about 5 mA and should run cold.
 

وسوف ارفق كل الصوره الموجوده في هذا الموضوع لوحدها مع ترقيم طل صوره وكل موضوع لوحده لكي يسهل معرفة هذي الصوره لاي موضوع
ولكم مني جزيل الشكر


--------------
اصعب شئ فى هذا العالم ان ترى اغلى واقرب من تحب يرمي بنفسه فى النار ولا تستطيع عمل شئ لسبب بسيط انه لا يريد منك التدخل
اصعب شئ فى هذا العالم ان تغمض عينيك عن الحق ارضاء لنفسك والنتيجه (اعمي فى كل الاحوال)

لاتضع كل أحلامك في شخص واحد ..ولاتجعل رحلة عمرك وجه شخص تحبه مهما كانت صفاته .. ولاتعتقد ان نهاية الأشياء هي نهاية العالم

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التصنيف : عضو شورى
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PostIcon تاريخ الرد : 13/3/2006 الساعة 02:50 انتقل إلى المشاركة السابقة في هذا الموضوع. انتقل إلى المشاركة اللاحقة في هذا الموضوع.   QUOTE

Connection Tester

Description:
A low resistance ( 0.25 - 4 ohm) continuity tester for checking soldered joints and connections.


Notes:
This simple circuit uses a 741 op-amp in differential mode as a continuity tester. The voltage difference between the non-inverting and inverting inputs is amplified by the full open loop gain of the op-amp. Ignore the 470k and the 10k control for the moment, and look at the input of the op-amp. If the resistors were perfectly matched, then the voltage difference would be zero and output zero. However the use of the 470k and 10k control allows a small potential difference to be applied across the op-amp inputs and upset the balance of the circuit. This is amplified causing the op-amp output to swing to full supply voltage and light the LED's.

Setting Up and Testing:
The probes should first be connected to a resistor of value between 0.22 ohm and 4ohm. The control is adjusted until the LED's just light with the resistance across the probes. The resistor should then be removed and probes short circuited, the LED's should go out. As the low resistance value is extremely low, it is important that the probes, (whether crocodile clips or needles etc) be kept clean, otherwise dirt can increase contact resistance and cause the circuit to mis-operate. The circuit should also work with a MOSFET type op-amp such as CA3130, CA3140, and JFET types, e.g. LF351. If the lED's will not extinguish then a 10k preset should be wired across the offset null terminals, pins 1 and 5, the wiper of the control being connected to the negative battery terminal. A pin out for the 741 can also be found on my practical section .





Dark Activated Switch
Description:
This circuit will activate a relay when light falls to a preset level. Light level can be adjusted with VR1 and the relay contacts may be used to operate an external light or buzzer.


Notes:
The light sensor used is the ORP12 photocell. In bright light the resistance of the ORP12 can be as low as 80 ohm and at 50lux (darkness) the resistance increases to over 1 Mohm. The 1M control should provide a wide range for light intensities, if not its value may be increased. The op-amp senses the voltage difference between pins 2 and 3. The control VR1 is adjusted so that the relay is off, the output of the op-amp will be around 2 Volts. When light falls, the resistance of the photocell increases and the difference in input voltage is amplified by the op-amp, the output will swing towards full supply and drive the transistor and relay. The 270k resistor provides a small amount of hysteresis, so that the circuit switches on and off with slightly different light levels. This eliminates relay chatter. Take great care if you decide to wire the relay to activate a mains lamp. Make sure the relay contacts provide adequate isolation and have ample rating for the load.

Parts List:
ORP12 Photocell (1)
RLY1: 12VSPDT (1)
U1: UA741 (1)
Q1: BC109 NPN (1)
D1: 1N4002 DIODE (1)
F1: 1A (1)
VR1: 1M RESISTOR (1)
ORP12: 500K RESISTOR (1)
R1,R3,R2: 10k RESISTOR (3)
R5: 4.7k RESISTOR (1)
R6: 1k RESISTOR (1)
R4: 270k RESISTOR (1)






Electronic Canary
Feeling chirpy? Attract new friends with this modified hartley oscillator. You could also use it as a replacement doorbell.



Notes:
This circuit is a modified hartley oscillator with a couple of extra components included. The transformer is a small audio transformer, type LT700. The primary is center tapped with an impedance of 1Kohms at 1KHz . The secondary has an impedance of 8 ohms. The inclusion of R1 and C1 give this oscillator its characteristic "chirp". As the 100u capacitor charges via the 4.7K resistor, R1 the bias for the transistor is cut off. This causes the oscillation to stop, the capacitor discharges through the base emitter circuit of the transistor and oscillations start again. Altering these components alters the frequency of the chirp. The chirp is also voltage dependent. When the push button switch is operated the 100u capacitor is charged. When its released, the oscillation decays and the chirp becomes faster.





Function Generator
Notes:
Built around a single 8038 waveform generator IC, this circuit produces sine, square or triangle waves from 20Hz to 200kHz in four switched ranges. There are both high and low level outputs which may be adjusted with the level control. This project makes a useful addition to any hobbyists workbench as well.
Allof the waveform generation is produced by IC1. This versatile IC even has a sweep input, but is not used in this circuit. The IC contains an internal squarewave oscillator, the frequency of which is controlled by timing capacitors C1 - C4 and the 10k potentiometer. The tolerance of the capacitors should be 10% or better for stability. The squarewave is differentiated to produce a triangular wave, which in turn is shaped to produce a sine wave. All this is done internally, with a minimum of external components. The purity of the sine wave is adjusted by the two 100k preset resistors.
The wave shape switch is a single pole 3 way rotary switch, the wiper arm selects the wave shape and is connected to a 10k potentiometer which controls the amplitude of all waveforms. IC2 is an LF351 op-amp wired as a standard direct coupled non-inverting buffer, providing isolation between the waveform generator, and also increasing output current. The 2.2k and 47 ohm resistors form the output attenuator. At the high output, the maximum amplitude is about 8V pk-pk with the square wave. The maximum for the triangle and sine waves is around 6V and 4V respectively. The low amplitude controls is useful for testing amplifiers, as amplitudes of 20mV and 50mV are easily achievable.
Setting Up:
The two 100k preset resistors adjust the purity of the sine wave. If adjusted correctly, then the distortion amounts to less than 1%. The output waveform ideally needs to be monitored with an oscilloscope, but most people reading this will not have access to one. There is however, an easy alternative:- Winscope. This piece of software uses your soundcard and turns your computer into an oscilloscope. It even has storage facility and a spectrum analyser, however it will only work up to around 20KHz or so. Needless to say, this is more than adequate for this circuit, as alignment on any range automatically aligns other ranges as well. Winscope is available at my download page click here. Winscope is freeware and designed by Konstantin Zeldovich. After downloading, read the manual supplied with winscope and make up a lead to your soundcard. My soundcard is a soundblaster with a stereo line input, i made up a lead with both left and right inputs connected together. Connect the lead to the high output of the function genereator, set the output level to high, shape to sine, and use the 1k to 10k range, (22nF capacitor). A waveform should be displayed, see the Figure 1 below:-

والشكر لمن اهداني  التوقيع


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اصعب شئ فى هذا العالم ان ترى اغلى واقرب من تحب يرمي بنفسه فى النار ولا تستطيع عمل شئ لسبب بسيط انه لا يريد منك التدخل
اصعب شئ فى هذا العالم ان تغمض عينيك عن الحق ارضاء لنفسك والنتيجه (اعمي فى كل الاحوال)

لاتضع كل أحلامك في شخص واحد ..ولاتجعل رحلة عمرك وجه شخص تحبه مهما كانت صفاته .. ولاتعتقد ان نهاية الأشياء هي نهاية العالم

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التصنيف : عضو شورى
الردود : 624
التسجيل: فبراير 2006
PostIcon تاريخ الرد : 13/3/2006 الساعة 02:53 انتقل إلى المشاركة السابقة في هذا الموضوع. انتقل إلى المشاركة اللاحقة في هذا الموضوع.   QUOTE

Figure 1.
Here an undistorted sine wave is being displayed. The display on winscope may flicker, this is normal as it uses your soundcard to take samples of the input waveform. The "hold" button on winscope will display a steady waveform.
Alignment:
First adjust the 100k preset connected to Pin 1 of the 8038. An incorrect setting will look similar to the waveform below:-

Adjust the preset so that the top of the sine wave has a nicely rounded peak. Then adjust the other preset, again an incorrectly adjusted waveform is shown below:

The two presets work together, so adjusting one affects the other. A little is all that's needed. When your waveform is asjusted and looks similar to Figure 1 press the FFT button on winscope. This will preform a fast fourier transform and the displayed output will be a spectrogram of the input. For a pure sine wave, only one signal is present, the fundamental frequency, no harmonics will be present and so a spectrogram for a pure sine should contain a single spike, see Figure 2 below:-

Figure 2.
A distorted sine wave will contain odd and even harmonics, and although the shape of the sine may look good, the spectrogram will reveal spikes at the hormonics, see below:-

Once alignment of the sine wave is complete, the other wave shapes will also be set up correctly. Below is a picture of the triangle waveform generated from my circuit:-

Finally the ICL8038PCD is available from Maplin Electronics order code YH38R.



Nicad Battery Charger

Notes:
This simple charger uses a single transistor as a constant current source. The voltage across
the pair of 1N4148 diodes biases the base of the BD140 medium power transistor. The base-
emitter voltage of the transistor and the forward voltage drop across the diodes are relatively stable.  The charging current is approximately 15mA or 45mA with the switch closed. This
suits most 1.5V and 9V rechargeable batteries.
The transformer should have a secondary rating of 12V ac at 0.5amp, the primary should be
220/240volts for Europe or 120volts ac for North America.
WARNING: Take care with this circuit. Use a voltmeter to observe correct polarity. Nicads
can  explode if short circuited or connected with the wrong polarity.




Regulated 12 Volt Supply

Description
A basic regulated 12 Volt power supply



Notes:
This circuit above uses a 13 volt zener diode, D2 which provides the voltage regulation. Aprroximately 0.7 Volts are dropped across the transistors b-e junction, leaving a higher current 12.3 Volt output supply. This circuit can supply loads of up to 500 mA. This circuit is also known as an amplified zener circuit.


Sound Effects Generator

Description:
This circuit uses a UM3561 IC to produce four different sound effects.


Notes:
Nothing too complicated here. The IC produces all the sound effects, the output at Pin 3 being amplified by the transistor. A 64 ohm loudspeaker can be substituted in place of the 56 ohm resistor and 8 ohm loudspeaker. The 2 pole 4 way switch controls the sound effects. Position 1 (as drawn) being a Police siren, position 2 is a fire engine sound, 3 is an ambulance and position 4 is a machine gun effect. The IC is manufactured by UMC and was available from Maplin electronics code UJ45Y. At the time of writing this has now been discontinued, but they have have limited stocks available.






Sound Operated Switch

Notes:
This sensitive sound operated switch can be used with a dynamic microphone insert as above,
or be used with an electret (ECM) microphone. If an ECM is used then R1 (shown dotted) will
need to be included. A suitable value would be between 2.2k and 10kohms.
The two BC109C transitors form an audio preamp, the gain of which is controlled by the 10k
preset.  The output is further amplified by a BC182B transistor. To prevent instability the
preamp is decoupled with a 100u capacitor and 1k resistor. The audio voltage at the collector
of the BC182B is rectified by the two 1N4148 diodes and 4.7u capacitor. This dc voltage will
directly drive the BC212B transistor and operate the relay and LED.
It should be noted that this circuit does not "latch". The relay and LED operate momentarily
in response to audio peaks.










Transformerless Power Supply
Web-masters Note:
I have had several requests for a power supply project without using a power supply. This can save the expense of buying a transformer, but presents potentially lethal voltages at the output terminals.Under no circumstances should a beginner attempt to build such a project. Please also read the Disclaimer on this site.
Important Notice:
Electric Shock Hazard. In the UK,the neutral wire is connected to earth at the power station. If you touch the "Live" wire, then depending on how well earthed you are, you form a conductive path between Live and Neutral. DO NOT TOUCH the output of this power supply. Whilst the output of this circuit sits innocently at 12V with respect to (wrt) the other terminal, it is also 12V above earth potential. Should a component fail then either terminal will become a potential shock hazard.
Below is a project by Ron J, please heed the caution above and Ron's design notes.
MAINS ELECTRICITY IS VERY DANGEROUS.

If you are not experienced in dealing with it, then leave this project alone.Although Mains equipment can itself consume a lot of current, the circuits we build to control it, usually only require a few milliamps. Yet the low voltage power supply is frequently the largest part of the construction and a sizeable portion of the cost.
This circuit will supply up to about 20ma at 12 volts. It uses capacitive reactance instead of resistance; and it doesn't generate very much heat.The circuit draws about 30ma AC. Always use a fuse and/or a fusible resistor to be on the safe side. The values given are only a guide. There should be more than enough power available for timers, light operated switches, temperature controllers etc, provided that you use an optical isolator as your circuit's output device. (E.g. MOC 3010/3020) If a relay is unavoidable, use one with a mains voltage coil and switch the coil using the optical isolator.C1 should be of the 'suppressor type'; made to be connected directly across the incoming Mains Supply. They are generally covered with the logos of several different Safety Standards Authorities. If you need more current, use a larger value capacitor; or put two in parallel; but be careful of what you are doing to the Watts. The low voltage 'AC' is supplied by ZD1 and ZD2. The bridge rectifier can be any of the small 'Round', 'In-line', or 'DIL' types; or you could use four separate diodes. If you want to, you can replace R2 and ZD3 with a 78 Series regulator. The full sized ones will work; but if space is tight, there are some small 100ma versions available in TO 92 type cases. They look like a BC 547. It is also worth noting that many small circuits will work with an unregulated supply. You can, of course, alter any or all of the Zenner diodes in order to produce a different output voltage. As for the mains voltage, the suggestion regarding the 110v version is just that, a suggestion. I haven't built it, so be prepared to experiment a little.

I get a lot of emails asking if this power supply can be modified to provide currents of anything up to 50 amps. It cannot. The circuit was designed to provide a cheap compact power supply for Cmos logic circuits that require only a few milliamps. The logic circuits were then used to control mains equipment (fans, lights, heaters etc.) through an optically isolated triac. If more than 20mA is required it is possible to increase C1 to 0.68uF or 1uF and thus obtain a current of up to about 40mA. But 'suppressor type' capacitors are relatively big and more expensive than regular capacitors; and increasing the current means that higher wattage resistors and zener diodes are required. If you try to produce more than about 40mA the circuit will no longer be cheap and compact, and it simply makes more sense to use a transformer.


Unregulated Power Supply
A basic full wave rectified power supply is shown below. The transformer is chosen according to the desired load. For example, if the load requires 12V at 1amp current, then a 12V, 1 amp rated transformer would do. However, when designing power supplies or most electronic circuits, you should always plan for a worst case scenario. With this in mind, for a load current of 1 amp a wise choice would be a transformer with a secondary current rating of 1.5 amp or even 2 amps. Allowing for a load of 50% higher than the needed value is a good rule of thumb. The primary winding is always matched to the value of the local electricity supply.

Notes:
An approximate formula for determining the amount of ripple on an unregulated supply is:
Vrip = Iload * 0.007 / C
where I load is the DC current measured through the load in amps and C is the value of the capacitor in uF.The diagram below shows an example with a load current of 0.1 amp and a smoothing capacitor value of 1000uF.

The calculated value of ripple is (0.1 * 0.007) / 1000e-6 = 0.7 volts or 700mV. The value of peak-peak ripple measured from the graph is 628mV. Therefor, the equation is a good rule of thumb guide for choosing the correct value for a smoothing capacitor in a power supply.









Variable Power Supply

Notes:
Using the versatile L200 voltage regulator, this power supply has independent voltage and current limits. The mains transformer has a 12volt, 2 amp rated secondary, the primary winding should equal the electricity supply in your country, which is 240V here in the UK. The 10k control is adjusts voltage output from about 3 to 15 volts, and the 47 ohm control is the current limit. This is 10mA minimum and 2 amp maximum. Reaching the current limit will reduce the output voltage to zero. Voltage and current regulation equations can be found at this page.





Water Activated Alarm




The circuit uses a 555 timer wired as an astable oscillator and powered by the emitter current of the BC109C. Under dry conditions, the transistor will have no bias current and be fully off. As the probes get wet, a small current flows between base and emitter and the transistor switches on. A larger current flows in the collector circuit enabling the 555 osillator to sound.

An On/Off switch is provided and remember to use a non-reactive metal for the probe contacts. Gold or silver plated contacts from an old relay may be used, however a cheap alternative is to wire alternate copper strips from a piece of veroboard. These will eventually oxidize over but as very little current is flowing in the base circuit, the higher impedance caused by oxidization is not important. No base resistor is necessary as the transistor is in emitter follower, current limit being the impedance at the emitter (the oscillator circuit).

وبكرا انشاء الله سوف اضع صور هذي البحوث في رد لوحده مع ترقيم كل صوره مع الموضع المرافق لها
والشكر لمن اهداني التوقيع


الصورة المرفقة
الصورة المرفقة

--------------
اصعب شئ فى هذا العالم ان ترى اغلى واقرب من تحب يرمي بنفسه فى النار ولا تستطيع عمل شئ لسبب بسيط انه لا يريد منك التدخل
اصعب شئ فى هذا العالم ان تغمض عينيك عن الحق ارضاء لنفسك والنتيجه (اعمي فى كل الاحوال)

لاتضع كل أحلامك في شخص واحد ..ولاتجعل رحلة عمرك وجه شخص تحبه مهما كانت صفاته .. ولاتعتقد ان نهاية الأشياء هي نهاية العالم

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التصنيف : عضو شورى
الردود : 624
التسجيل: فبراير 2006
PostIcon تاريخ الرد : 14/3/2006 الساعة 00:46 انتقل إلى المشاركة السابقة في هذا الموضوع. انتقل إلى المشاركة اللاحقة في هذا الموضوع.   QUOTE

انا اسف ياجماعه لاني وعدت انا اضع الصور اليوم وساحاول انا اضعها اليوم بس عندي مشكله بسيطه في بعض الصور مو واضحه كثير ساحاول ان اوضحها واضعها هنا
وانا اسف كمان مرا على التاخير ارجو المعذره


عدل بواسطة اسلحة الطاقه في 14/3/2006 الساعة 01:02
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التصنيف : عضو شورى
الردود : 624
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PostIcon تاريخ الرد : 17/3/2006 الساعة 03:54 انتقل إلى المشاركة السابقة في هذا الموضوع. انتقل إلى المشاركة اللاحقة في هذا الموضوع.   QUOTE

هذه الدائرة الاولى


هذه الدائره الثانيه


هذه الدائرة الثالثه

هذه الدائره الرابعه

هذه الدائره الخامسه

هذه الدائره السادسه مع توابعها :





وانشاء الله بقية الصور قادمه
ولكم مني جزيل الشكر
اخوكم اسلحة الطاقه


--------------
اصعب شئ فى هذا العالم ان ترى اغلى واقرب من تحب يرمي بنفسه فى النار ولا تستطيع عمل شئ لسبب بسيط انه لا يريد منك التدخل
اصعب شئ فى هذا العالم ان تغمض عينيك عن الحق ارضاء لنفسك والنتيجه (اعمي فى كل الاحوال)

لاتضع كل أحلامك في شخص واحد ..ولاتجعل رحلة عمرك وجه شخص تحبه مهما كانت صفاته .. ولاتعتقد ان نهاية الأشياء هي نهاية العالم

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التصنيف : عضو شورى
الردود : 624
التسجيل: فبراير 2006
PostIcon تاريخ الرد : 17/3/2006 الساعة 04:04 انتقل إلى المشاركة السابقة في هذا الموضوع. انتقل إلى المشاركة اللاحقة في هذا الموضوع.   QUOTE

هذه تابعه للدائره السادسه


هذه الدائره السابعه

هذه الدائره الثامنه

هذه الدائره التاسعه

هذه الدائره العاشره

هذه الدائره الحاديه عشر

هذه الدائره الثانيه عشر

هذه الدائره الثاله عشر

هذه الدائره الرابعه عشر

الدائره الخامسه عشر والاخيره

واذا في اي اخطاء ارجو الابلاغ عنها وارجو انو الموضوع يعجبكم
اخوكم اسلحة الطاقه


--------------
اصعب شئ فى هذا العالم ان ترى اغلى واقرب من تحب يرمي بنفسه فى النار ولا تستطيع عمل شئ لسبب بسيط انه لا يريد منك التدخل
اصعب شئ فى هذا العالم ان تغمض عينيك عن الحق ارضاء لنفسك والنتيجه (اعمي فى كل الاحوال)

لاتضع كل أحلامك في شخص واحد ..ولاتجعل رحلة عمرك وجه شخص تحبه مهما كانت صفاته .. ولاتعتقد ان نهاية الأشياء هي نهاية العالم

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التصنيف : عضو شورى
الردود : 624
التسجيل: فبراير 2006
PostIcon تاريخ الرد : 21/3/2006 الساعة 15:58 انتقل إلى المشاركة السابقة في هذا الموضوع. انتقل إلى المشاركة اللاحقة في هذا الموضوع.   QUOTE

اذا الموضوع قديم او مكرر ارجو من المشرف حذفه
ولكم مني جزيل الشكر
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اصعب شئ فى هذا العالم ان ترى اغلى واقرب من تحب يرمي بنفسه فى النار ولا تستطيع عمل شئ لسبب بسيط انه لا يريد منك التدخل
اصعب شئ فى هذا العالم ان تغمض عينيك عن الحق ارضاء لنفسك والنتيجه (اعمي فى كل الاحوال)

لاتضع كل أحلامك في شخص واحد ..ولاتجعل رحلة عمرك وجه شخص تحبه مهما كانت صفاته .. ولاتعتقد ان نهاية الأشياء هي نهاية العالم

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التصنيف : عضو
الردود : 6
التسجيل: مارس 2008
PostIcon تاريخ الرد : 17/3/2008 الساعة 00:17 انتقل إلى المشاركة السابقة في هذا الموضوع.    QUOTE

يعطيك العافيه يليت تعطني فكره عن دائرة لانذار عند المطر
مكونات الدائره  وكيف تتم تجربه الدئره وتطبق على الوح مطبوع فائدة وشششششششششششششششششكرررررررررررررر
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7 عدد الردود من تاريخ 13/3/2006 الساعة 02:48 < السابق | التالي >

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» رد سريع دوائر كهربائيه مختلفه
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